The Basics of Income Taxes

Thursday, January 30 at 10:20 AM
Category: Personal Finance

Over the years the income tax law itself and the rules surrounding the law have become huge, complex and confusing. Many have found professional income tax advisors or software programs are essential for preparing tax returns and just dealing with all the financial issues associated with income taxes.

This article does not replace the expert advice of professionals but rather explains some of the basics so you can better understand how our income tax structure works, how it can affect your financial decisions and how you can be a more informed income taxpayer. 

Our income tax system is generally described as a progressive, marginal rate system. This means as we earn more income, we pay higher rates of tax on that income. To better understand this, consider the following three components – how much is taxed, what tax rates apply and how do we pay the tax. Then, unfortunately, there are all the additional rules.

How much is taxed – or what is taxable income?
When you prepare your tax return (Form 1040), or gather information for your return accountant, you probably start by identifying all your income for the year. This includes your wages (reported on Form W-2 and supplied by your employer), dividends and interest (reported on Form 1099 and supplied by your bank, credit union, brokerage firm and others), any capital gains you had during the year (determined your own records or supplied by a mutual fund or brokerage firm) and income from self employment, retirement plan distributions, Social Security income and other sources. You then get reductions for deductible IRA or retirement plan contributions and a couple other items.

The next step is to determine your deductions. The tax law allows itemized deductions for state and local taxes, interest paid on mortgages, charitable contributions, medical expenses that exceed certain levels and a few other items. If you do not have large amounts of itemized deductions, then you can take a “standard deduction.” After all the needed calculations, you arrive at your “taxable income.”

How is your taxable income taxed?
There are different tax rate schedules* depending on your filing status.

For taxpayers in the 10 percent and 15 percent brackets, qualifying dividends and long-term capital gains (assets held for more than a year) will be taxed at 0 percent. For those in 25 percent, 28 percent, 33 percent and 35 percent tax brackets; the tax rate on dividends and long term capital gains is 15 percent. For those in the top 39.6 percent bracket, the tax rate is 20 percent.

Depending on your situation, there may also a few “credits” that can be applied to reduce your taxes for things like foreign taxes and certain education expenses. The net result is your income tax liability for the year.

Paying your income taxes

Your employer withholds federal income taxes from your paychecks and forwards those funds to the government. This is reflected in your Form W-2 along with your earnings and Social Security withholding.  The amount of income tax they withhold is based on the Form W-4 on which you identify the number of “exemptions” you claim. The larger the number of exemptions, the less they withhold.

Some individuals also end up making quarterly estimated income tax payments if they suspect their withholding will not be sufficient. There can be interest and penalties if the total of your withholding and estimated payments are too little. You then compare your income tax liability with the total payments you have already made and the difference is what you owe or the amount of refund you should receive.

Other issues
This article has only provided some of the very basics of our income tax laws. The Alternative Minimum Tax, special distributions from retirement plans, stock options, changes in marital status are just a few of the hundreds, if not thousands, of other issues that can complicate your situation. Each person’s situation is different, the rules are complex and the consequences of not following the rules can be severe. Be sure you get the tax advice you want and need from a qualified professional.

The views of this article are for general information use only. Please contact a subject expert or your tax advisor when specific advice is needed. Links marked with * go to a third-party site not operated or endorsed by Arvest Bank, an FDIC-insured institution.

Tags: Financial Education, Tax
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